Effects of Energy and Macronutrient Cycling on Weight Loss, Body Composition, and Markers of Health in Obese Women Participating in a Resistance-Based Exercise Program

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Julie Kresta Mike Byrd Jonathan M Oliver Claire C Baetge Michelle Mardock Sunday Simbo Y Peter Jung Majid Koozehchian Deepesh Khanna Brittanie Lockard Ryan Dalton Christopher Rasmussen Richard B Kreider

Abstract

Purpose: To determine whether adherence to a repeating 30-d non-linear diet intervention while participating in a supervised exercise program that includes resistance-exercise would promote weight and fat loss without weight loss plateau and whether alterations in carbohydrate and protein intake may influence results. Methods: Fifty sedentary and obese pre-menopausal females (35.2±7.6 years; 88.7±18 kg, 32.6±6 kg/m2, 42.5±4.2% fat) were randomly assigned to an exercise-only (EX) or EX plus diets containing higher proportions of carbohydrate or protein. Diets were hypoenergetic for 30-d (7-d at 1,200 kcals/d, 21-d at 1,500 kcal/d), more isoenergetic for 30-d (2,200 kcals/d), and repeated three times during a 24-wk intervention. Diets were either 45:30:24 (HCD) or 30:45:25 (HPD) carbohydate:protein:fat. All participants performed 30-min resistance exercise (3 d/wk) and a brisk walking program (3 d/wk). Data were analyzed by general linear model (GLM) statistics with repeated measures and presented as mean changes from baseline (mean [UL, LL]). Results: Participants experienced a significant and reduction in body weight (EX -2.24 [-6.5, 2.0], EX+HCD -6.99 [-9.4, -4.5], EX+HPD -4.49 [-7.1, -1.8] %), fat mass (EX -3.45 [-10.9, 4.03], EX+HCD -12.15 [-16.4, -7.9], EX+HPD -8.54 [-13.2, -3.9] %), and percent body fat (EX -1.30 [-5.6, 3.0], EX+HCD -5.91 [-8.3, -3.5], EX+HPD -4.31 [-7.0, -1.6] %) with those in the EX+HCD experiencing a more linear response. Participants in the EX and EX+HCD groups maintained fat-free mass to a better degree (EX -0.89 [-4.0, 2.2], EX+HCD -3.21 [-5.0, -1.2], EX+HPD -1.92 [-3.8, 0.002] %). Participants dieting generally experiencing greater benefit with some evidence that those in the EX+HPD experienced greater changes in blood lipids. Conclusion: A 30-day repeated non-linear diet can promote fat and weight loss without a plateau. Consuming a HPD may help maintain fat-free mass during weight loss and improve some markers of health compared to HCD interventions.

Article Details

How to Cite
KRESTA, Julie et al. Effects of Energy and Macronutrient Cycling on Weight Loss, Body Composition, and Markers of Health in Obese Women Participating in a Resistance-Based Exercise Program. Medical Research Archives, [S.l.], v. 8, n. 6, june 2020. ISSN 2375-1924. Available at: <https://journals.ke-i.org/mra/article/view/2125>. Date accessed: 15 july 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.18103/mra.v8i6.2125.
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Research Articles

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