Main Article Content
Teenage pregnancy (TP) is a worldwide phenomenon affecting both developed and developing countries; it is a universal problem. Teenage pregnancy is the result of the fact that teenagers are sexually active. It has not only become a public health issue, but also a media focal point. It is one of the main issues in every health care system since early pregnancy can have harmful implications on girls’ physical, psychological, economic and social status. In 2014 the World Health Organization reported that 11% of all births were due to women aged 15-19 years and approximately 95% of teenage pregnancies occur in developing countries . This paper aims to assess spatial differentials of factors influencing teenage pregnancy in Namibia to help policy makers, program managers and health care authorities make better targeted decisions in planning and problem solving. The study used secondary data from the 2013 NDHS. The units of analysis were teenage girls aged between 15 and 19 years. Univariate and bivariate analysis entailed description of all sampled teenagers followed by ever pregnant respondents by individual and household variables. Multilevel binary logistic regression established the association between independent variables and teenage pregnancy using backward stepwise regression at 5% significance level. The results show that a total of 1857 teenage girls were successfully sampled. Of these 378 (20.4%) had experienced teenage pregnancy. Spatial distribution of teenage pregnancy indicated that TP is more prevalent in Kavango region with 15.6% followed by Ohangwena region with 11.6%. The region with the least teen pregnancy prevalence was Oshana with 3.4%. The results also revealed significant spatial association with contraceptive use and age at first sexual debut. Ohangwena region recorded the lowest level of contraceptive use among teenage girls. There are also spatial variations with regard to type of contraceptive use. The majority of regions showed high proportion of teenage girls had their first sex before the age of 15. Overall, the study concluded that teenage pregnancy in Namibia is significantly influenced by use of contraceptives, age at which teenage girl had first sex, education level, and household wealth status. It is therefore important for the country to scale up and expand adolescent friendly health services especially in regions highly affected. Innovative and education programmes in the form of drama or movie series targeting teenagers should be used as advocacy and information sharing strategy.
The Medical Research Archives grants authors the right to publish and reproduce the unrevised contribution in whole or in part at any time and in any form for any scholarly non-commercial purpose with the condition that all publications of the contribution include a full citation to the journal as published by the Medical Research Archives.
 Chau-Kuang, C, Ward C, Willians K, Abdullah A. (2013) Investigating Risk Factors Affecting Teenage Pregnancy Rates in the United States. European International Journal of Science and Technology, 2013; 2(2):41-51
 Wado YD, Sully EA, Mumah JN. Pregnancy and early motherhood among adolescents in five East African countries: a multi-level analysis of risk and protective factors. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 2019; 19:59.
 Geda YF. Determinants of teenage pregnancy in Ethiopia: A Case–control study. Curr Med Issues 2019; 17:112‑7.
 Ramraj T, Jackson D, Dinh TH, Olorunju S, et al. Adolescent Access to Care and Risk of Early Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission. Journal of adolescent health, 2018; 62(4): 434-443.
 United Nations Population Fund. Motherhood in Childhood: Facing the challenge of adolescent pregnancy. New York: UNFPA, 2013.
 Nyakubega P. Factors associated with adolescent pregnancies among secondary school students: a study from Tanga-Tanzania. African Journals Online, 2010; 16(1).
 Odimegwu C, Mkwananzi S. Factors Associated with Teen Pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa: A Multi-Country Cross-Sectional Study. African Journal of Reproductive Health, 2016 (Special Edition); 20(3): 94
 Ugoji F. Parental marital status and peer influence as correlates of teenage pregnancy among female teens in south-South Nigeria. Gender and Behaviour, 2011; 9(2):4125-38
 Were M. Determinants of teenage pregnancies: the case of Busia District in Kenya. Econ Hum Biol. 2007;5(2):322–39.
 Mothiba TM, Maputle MS. ‘Factors contributing to teenage pregnancy in the Capricorn district of the Limpopo Province’, 2012; Curationis 35(1).
 World Health Organisation. Adolescent Pregnancy. Geneva: WHO, 2014
 UNICEF. Early Childbearing. 2019
 Ayele BG/kidan, Gebregzabher TG, Hailu TT, Assefa BA. Determinants of teenage pregnancy in Degua Tembien District, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: A community-based case-control study. PLoS ONE, 2018; 13(7): e0200898. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0200898.
Yakubu I, Salisu WJ. Determinants of adolescent pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review. Reproductive Health, 2018; 15:15.
 Corcoran J, Franklin C, Bennett P. Ecological factors associated with adolescent pregnancy and parenting. Social Work Research, 2000; 24(1):29-39.
 The Namibia Ministry of Health and Social Services (MoHSS) and ICF International. The Namibia Demographic and Health Survey 2013. Windhoek, Namibia, and Rockville, Maryland, USA: MoHSS and ICF International, 2014.
 Ayuba II, Ibukun OOG. Socio-demographic determinants of teenage pregnancy in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2012; 2, 239-243.
 Thobejane TD. Factors Contributing to Teenage Pregnancy in South Africa: The Case of Matjitjileng Village. J Sociology Soc Anth, 2015; 6(2): 273-277.
 Gideon R. Factors associated with adolescent pregnancy and fertility in Uganda: analysis of the 2011 demographic and health survey data. Social Sciences; 2013; 2(1): 7±13.
 Phillips SJ, Mbizvo MT. Empowering adolescent girls in sub-Saharan Africa to prevent unintended pregnancy and HIV: a critical research gap. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2016; 132(1):1–3.
 World Health Organization, United Nations Population Fund, and United Nations Children’s Fund. Action for Adolescent Health: Towards a Common Agenda: Recommendations from a Joint Study Group, 1995.
 Mohr R, Austin SF. The Influence of Educational Attainment on Teenage Pregnancy in Low-Income Countries: A Systematic Literature Review. Journal of Social Work in the Global Community, 2019; 4(1): 19–31.
 Barmao-Kiptanui C, Kindiki, JN, Lelan JK. Impact of teenage motherhood on the academic performance in public primary schools in Bungoma County, Kenya. International Journal of Educational Administration and Policy Studies, 2015; 7, 61–71.
 Masemola-Yende JPF, Mataboge SM. Access to information and decision making on teenage pregnancy prevention by females in Tshwane. Curationis, 2015; 38(2): 1540.
 Sipsma HL, Canavan M, Gilliam M, Bradley E. Impact of social service and public health spending on teenage birth rates across the USA: An ecological study. BMJ Open, 2017;7:e013601.
 Shoff C, Yang TC. Spatially varying predictors of teenage birth rates among counties in the United States. Demogr Res, 2012;27:377‑418.