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Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized primarily by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and appearance of alpha-synuclein aggregates in Lewy bodies. The neuroinflammation in Parkinson's disease is associated with activation of microglia, the participation of inflammatory cytokines, and systemic activation of natural killer cells. Evidence suggests that several inflammatory cytokines are enhanced in the brain and blood of patients presenting with Parkinson's disease. In addition, others studies have suggested that Light Emitting Diode (LED) and Low-intensity Light (Laser) hold potential for improving neuronal cell function in patients with Parkinson's Disease. This study investigated the influence of LED and Laser on inflammatory processes caused by an electrolytic lesion of the substantia nigra in an experimental model of Parkinson's disease. Sixty Wistar rats were divided into three experimental groups (LED, Laser, and Control). An electrode was placed in the cortex for PD induction that was evaluated for motor conditions after 30 days in an Open Field. Cytokines levels were analyzed by flow cytometry using the BD Cytometric Bead Array Mouse Th1/Th2 Cytokine Kit. Serum cytokine concentrations (IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ) were significantly different in each group. When compared with other groups, the concentrations of interferon and IL-2 were higher in the LED and Laser groups, respectively. TNF-α showed lower concentrations in the LED and Laser groups when compared with the Control group. The LED and Laser actions on the central nervous system in an animal model with lesions presenting neurodegeneration and persistent inflammation, such as in Parkinson's disease, show significant effects for the treatment and prevention of neurodegeneration caused by pro-inflammatory cytokines.
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