Main Article Content
OBJECTIVE: Köhler motivation gain principles were utilized (based on the group dynamics principles of upward social comparison and indispensability) to explore increasing exercise duration in an obese community sample (mean BMI = 38 kg∙m-2) with a lighter versus same weight virtually-presented interactive exergame partner.
METHODS: Community adults (N = 48; age = 45.3 ± 15.86 years) completed the first block of three isometric abdominal exercises alone. After resting, participants completed the second block either alone (Control), with a lighter weight (LW), or with a same weight partner (SW). Partners were actually confederates recorded earlier and presented virtually as live, from another lab. Exercise persistence, self-efficacy beliefs, enjoyment, perceived exertion, perceptions of one’s own and relative partner ability, and body image were collected.
RESULTS: Mean persistence was greater for participants in the LW (23.2 sec) condition than for those in the Control condition (-12.44 sec; 95% CI: 11.57, 59.3, p < 0.002). Mean persistence was also greater for participants in the SW (21 sec) condition than for those in the Control condition (-12.44 sec; 95% CI: 8.74, 58.14, p < 0.006). Despite persisting longer than Controls, SW participants rated their own ability lower than Controls (p = 0.027). Body image assessment choice correlated with BMI (r =.69), but was not significantly related to persistence.
CONCLUSIONS: The Köhler motivation effect increased persistence with abdominal isometric exercises in obese adults and was not moderated by the relative weight of one’s partner.
The Medical Research Archives grants authors the right to publish and reproduce the unrevised contribution in whole or in part at any time and in any form for any scholarly non-commercial purpose with the condition that all publications of the contribution include a full citation to the journal as published by the Medical Research Archives.
Borg, G. (1998). Borg’s perceived exertion and pain scales (Vol. viii). Champaign, IL, US: Human Kinetics.
Boutcher, S. H. (2011). High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise and Fat Loss. Journal of Obesity, 2011. http://doi.org/10.1155/2011/868305
Dishman, R. K. (2001). The Problem of Exercise Adherence: Fighting Sloth in Nations With Market Economies. Quest, 53(3), 279–294. http://doi.org/10.1080/00336297.2001.10491745
Dunstan, D. W., Puddey, I. B., Beilin, L. J., Burke, V., Morton, A. R., & Stanton, K. G. (1998). Effects of a short-term circuit weight training program on glycaemic control in NIDDM. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 40(1), 53–61.
Ede A, Forlenza ST, Feltz DL. (in press). Buddy up for exergames: how group dynamics principles can be applied to active health games. In: Novak D, Tulu B, Brendryen H (eds). Holistic Perspectives in Gamification for Clinical Practice.
Feltz, D. L., Forlenza, S. T., Winn, B., & Kerr, N. L. (2014). Cyber Buddy Is Better than No Buddy: A Test of the Köhler Motivation Effect in Exergames. Games for Health Journal, 3(2), 98–105. http://doi.org/10.1089/g4h.2013.0088
Feltz, D. L., Irwin, B., & Kerr, N. (2012). Two-player partnered exergame for obesity prevention: using discrepancy in players’ abilities as a strategy to motivate physical activity. Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, 6(4), 820-827.
Feltz, D. L., Kerr, N. L., & Irwin, B. C. (2011). Buddy up: the Köhler effect applied to health games. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 33(4), 506–526.
Forlenza, S. T., Kerr, N. L., Irwin, B. C., & Feltz, D. L. (2012). Is My Exercise Partner Similar Enough? Partner Characteristics as a Moderator of the Köhler Effect in Exergames. Games for Health Journal, 1(6), 436–441. http://doi.org/10.1089/g4h.2012.0047
Gourlan, M. J., Trouilloud, D. O., & Sarrazin, P. G. (2011).
Interventions promoting physical activity among obese populations: a meta-analysis considering global effect, long-term maintenance, physical activity indicators and dose characteristics. Obesity Reviews, 12(7), e633–e645. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00874.x
Hertel, G., Kerr, N. L., & Messé, L. A. (2000). Motivation gains in performance groups: paradigmatic and theoretical developments on the Köhler effect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79(4), 580–601.
Irwin, B. C., Scorniaenchi, J., Kerr, N. L., Eisenmann, J. C., & Feltz, D. L. (2012). Aerobic exercise is promoted when individual performance affects the group: a test of the Kohler motivation gain effect. Annals of Behavioral Medicine: A Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine, 44(2), 151–159. http://doi.org/10.1007/s12160-012-9367-4
Irwin, B.C., & Feltz, D.L. (in press). Interpersonal influences and motivation in physical activity. In Schinke, R., McGannon, K., & Smith, B. (Eds.), The Routledge International Handbook of Sport Psychology.
Karau, S. J., & Williams, K. D. (1993). Social loafing: A meta-analytic review and theoretical integration. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65(4), 681–706. http://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35220.127.116.111
Kerr, N. L., & Hertel, G. (2011). The Köhler Group Motivation Gain: How to Motivate the “Weak Links” in a Group. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 5(1), 43–55. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-9004.2010.00333.x
Kerr, N. L., Forlenza, S. T., Irwin, B. C., & Feltz, D. L. (2013). “… been down so long …”: Perpetual vs. intermittent inferiority and the Köhler group motivation gain in exercise groups. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 17(2), 67–80. http://doi.org/10.1037/a0031588
Kerr, N. L., & Seok, D.H. (2010). “...with a little help from my friends”: friendship, effort norms, and group motivation gain. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 26(3), 205–218.
Maher, C. A., Mire, E., Harrington, D. M., Staiano, A. E., & Katzmarzyk, P. T. (2013). The independent and combined associations of physical activity and sedentary behavior with obesity in adults: NHANES 2003-06. Obesity, 21(12), E730–E737. http://doi.org/10.1002/oby.20430
Napolitano, M. A., Papandonatos, G. D., Borradaile, K. E., Whiteley, J. A., & Marcus, B. H. (2001). Effects of weight status and barriers on physical activity adoption among previously inactive women. Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.), 19(11), 2183–2189. http://doi.org/10.1038/oby.2011.87
Pearson, E. S. (2012). Goal setting as a health behavior change strategy in overweight and obese adults: A systematic literature review examining intervention components. Patient Education and Counseling, 87(1), 32–42. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2011.07.018
Raedeke, T. D. (2007). The Relationship Between Enjoyment and Affective Responses to Exercise. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 19(1), 105–115. http://doi.org/10.1080/10413200601113638
Schmitz, K. H., Jensen, M. D., Kugler, K. C., Jeffery, R. W., & Leon, A. S. (2003). Strength training for obesity prevention in midlife women. International Journal of Obesity, 27(3), 326–333. http://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0802198
Schwartz, M. B., Vartanian, L. R., Nosek, B. A., & Brownell, K. D. (2006). The Influence of One’s Own Body Weight on Implicit and Explicit Anti-fat Bias. Obesity, 14(3), 440–447.
Smits, J. A. J., Tart, C. D., Presnell, K., Rosenfield, D., & Otto, M. W. (2010). Identifying Potential Barriers to Physical Activity Adherence: Anxiety Sensitivity and Body Mass as Predictors of Fear During Exercise. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 39(1), 28–36. http://doi.org/10.1080/16506070902915261
Trapp, E. G., Chisholm, D. J., Freund, J., & Boutcher, S. H. (2008). The effects of high-intensity intermittent exercise training on fat loss and fasting insulin levels of young women. International Journal of Obesity, 32(4), 684–691. http://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0803781
Tucker, J. M., Welk, G. J., & Beyler, N. K. (2011). Physical activity in U.S.: adult’s compliance with the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 40(4), 454–461. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2010.12.016
Williamson, D. A., Womble, L. G., Zucker, N. L., Reas, D. L., White, M. A., Blouin, D. C., & Greenway, F. (2000). Body image assessment for obesity (BIA-O): development of a new procedure. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity, 24(10), 1326–1332.