Oral diseases in Geriatric patients; pattern of presentation and challenges of management in a developing economy

Main Article Content

Victoria Okoje-Adesomoju Lawrence Aekunle Adebusoye Olufemi Oluwole Olowookere Grace Faith Daniels Temitope Oluwagbemiga Alonge


Objectives: To determine the pattern of orofacial diseases, oral care interventions and co-morbidities in the elderly

Background: Aging is accompanied by changes in every part of the body including orofacial tissues. These changes are often overlooked when considering health care demands of the elderly. Empirical insights into the pattern and risk factors to oral diseases of elderly Nigerians which are of public health importance are scarce.

Materials and Methods: Electronic records of 275 elderly patients aged ≥60 years who attended the dental unit of our facility between 1st January 2013 and 31st December 2015 were analyzed. Data extracted included the sociodemographic characteristics, reasons for encounter, orofacial diagnoses and co-morbidities.

Results: The mean age of the patients studied was 70.8 ± 7.5 years and 185 (67.3%) of these patients were females. The major reasons for the dental visits were toothache (54.9%) and cleaning of teeth (14.2%). Periodontal diseases (68.0%) and endodontic lesions (11.3%) were the commonest orofacial diagnoses. Overall, there were 780 (2.8 per elderly) missing teeth. Scaling and polishing 140 (50.9%) and tooth extraction 98 (35.6%) were the most frequent orofacial procedures. There was an average of 1.5 co-morbid medical condition per elderly patient studied. Hypertension (51.3%) and osteoarthritis (29.1%) were the most common co-morbid medical conditions in the patients we studied.

Conclusion: Periodontal and endodontic lesions were the commonest orofacial infections in these patients while hypertension and osteoarthritis were the most common co-morbid medical conditions seen amongst elderly patients seen at the dental unit of our geriatric health centre. These findings will be useful for the setting up and management of elderly patients needing oral health care in Nigeria.

Article Details

How to Cite
OKOJE-ADESOMOJU, Victoria et al. Oral diseases in Geriatric patients; pattern of presentation and challenges of management in a developing economy. Medical Research Archives, [S.l.], v. 7, n. 9, oct. 2019. ISSN 2375-1924. Available at: <https://journals.ke-i.org/index.php/mra/article/view/1979>. Date accessed: 14 nov. 2019. doi: https://doi.org/10.18103/mra.v7i9.1979.
Research Articles


1. Abdul Razak P, K M Jose Richard, Rekha P Thankachan, K A Abdul Hafiz, K Nanda Kumar, and K M Sameer J Int Oral Health. 2014 Nov-Dec; 6(6): 110–116.
2. Kelsey JL, Lamster IB. Influence of Musculoskeletal Conditions on Oral Health Among Older Adults. American Journal of Public Health. 2008; 98(7):1177-1183.
3. Public health and aging: retention of natural teeth among older adults in United States 2002 MMWR Morb. Mortal Wkly Rep 2003; 52(50): 1226-9.
4. Petersen PE, Yamamoto T. Improving the oral health of older people: the approach of the WHO Global Oral Health Programme. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2005; 33: 81–92. Blackwell Munksgaard, 2005 Abstract
5. Eke P I, Dye B A, Weil et al; Update of prevalence of periodontitis in adults in the USA. NHANES 2009-2012. J Periodontol 2015;86(5): 611-22.
6. Marie Herr, Jean-Jacques Arvieu, Philippe Aegerter, Jean-Marie Robine, Joël Ankri; Unmet health care needs of older people: prevalence and predictors in a French cross-sectional survey, European Journal of Public Health, Volume 24, Issue 5, 1 October 2014, Pages 808–813,
7. Federal interagency Forum on Aging-related statistics. Older American 2012 key indications for well-being.
8. Lamster IB. Oral Health Care Services for Older Adults: A Looming Crisis. American Journal of Public Health. 2004; 94(5):699-702.
9. Somerman MJ, Hoffeld JT, Baum BJ. Basic biology and physiology of oral tissues: overview and age associated changes. In: Tryon AF, ed. Oral Health and Aging. Littleton, MA: PSG Publishing; 1986.
10. Suresh R. Prevention and Treatment of Age-Related Diseases. The Netherlands: Springer; 2006. Aging and periodontal disease; pp. 193–200.
11. Chen X, Clark JJ, Chen H, Naorungroj S. Cognitive Impairment, Oral Self-care Function and Dental Caries Severity in Community-dwelling Older Adults. Gerodontology. 2015; 32(1):53-61. doi:10.1111/ger.12061.
12. Slaughter A. Providing Dental Care for Older Adults in Long Term Care. University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine. 2006
13. Schou L. Oral health, oral health care and oral health promotion among older adults: Social and behavioural dimensions. In: Cohen LK, Gift HC, editors. Disease Prevention and Oral Health Promotion. Copenhagen: Munksgaard; 1995.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

Obs.: This plugin requires at least one statistics/report plugin to be enabled. If your statistics plugins provide more than one metric then please also select a main metric on the admin's site settings page and/or on the journal manager's settings pages.