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Purpose To concisely present recommendations and guidelines for venous thromboembolism (VTE) treatment and prevention for common subgroups of surgical patients as a comprehensive reference for clinical surgical practice.
Methods Thorough literature review, including the consensus guidelines and recommendations of various professional surgical societies, was evaluated and conglomerated to provide a comprehensive reference for practicing surgeons. Common surgical patient subgroups were investigated for differing recommendations. Recommendations, guidelines, and resources were tabulated into user-friendly formats for easy reference purposes.
Results Substantial updates have been made to the recommendations for VTE prevention and treatment. The American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) have updated their VTE recommendations. The Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma has also released updated recommendations regarding VTE management. The Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons has recalled their own specific recommendations for VTE treatment and prophylaxis in support of tenth edition of the ACCP guidelines on the subject.
Conclusions VTE affects up to 25% of hospitalized patients, with up to 30% of those experiencing complications. Risk stratification is important in choosing therapy for prevention and management of VTE. Management of VTE depends on precipitating factors and future risk of VTE progression versus bleeding. Low-molecular-weight heparin is the preferred anticoagulant for initial treatment of VTE. The tenth edition of ACCP VTE guidelines provides comprehensive management recommendations.
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