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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global epidemic and public health crisis, and one-tenth of the world’s population is affected by CKD. In particular, CKD related to cardiovascular disease; therefore, it is important to suppress the progression of CKD. CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) is not limited to abnormalities in the serum parameters concerning mineral homeostasis; importantly, it is strongly associated with higher rates of both all-cause and cardiovascular-related mortality. Therefore, CKD-MBD immediate countermeasures.
Epigenetics has been recently recognized as an essential mechanism for pathogenesis in many diseases, including kidney diseases. Epigenetic modifications are inherited nuclear characteristics, or molecular changes that can affect gene expression without altering DNA sequences, including DNA methylation, histone modification, and non-coding RNAs. Epigenetic modifications in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) or CKD are actively undergoing investigation; however, there have been few reports relating epigenetic changes to mineral homeostasis and CKD-MBD, particularly in the text of parathyroid diseases.
In this review, we first describe epigenetic modification and subsequently discuss the roles and mechanisms of epigenetic modification in the pathogeneses of AKI, AKI-to-CKD transition, CKD, and CKD-MBD.
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