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Aim: This study was designed to assess phytochemical and antimicrobial activities of methanol (Met), aqueous (Aq), and methanol-aqueous (Met:Aq) extracts of Icacina senegalensis tuber.
Methodology: Phytochemical screening of the various tuber extracts was performed using standard methods. Antimicrobial testing was performed on clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella typhi, Peudomonas aeroginosa, Serratia marcescens, and Escherichia coli using the well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of the extracts were determined by the tube dilution method.
Results: The following phytochemicals were detected: alkaloids, phenols (all extracts), phytate, oxalate (Met), saponin (Aq), steroids, and cardiac glycosides (Met:Aq). All three extracts displayed good antibacterial activities against the test organisms.
Aq had the least MIC (1.41-11.25 μg/mL) and MBC (5.63-22.5 μg/mL) against the test organisms. Similar values for Met and Met:Aq were (3.125-6.25; 12.5-50 μg/mL) and (3.125-25; 25-50 μg/mL) respectively. Therefore the antibacterial potencies of the extracts seemed to be in the order of Aq ˃ Met˃ Met:Aq.
Conclusion: The bioactive (phytochemical) components of the different polar solvents extracts of Icacina senegalensis tuber possess wide spectrum antibacterial potency. Thus, a combination of these extracts in antibacterial drug formulation is an attractive option for enhanced efficacy.
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