Efficacy of Bothrops jararaca venom on the changes in immune functions and TH1/TH2 cytokine balance in murine macrophages

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Nuñez Valderrama RP Arteaga Figueroa L. R. Mendonça Zucatelli Vera L. Petricevich



Background: Hemorrhage, intravascular coagulation and cardiovascular shock are effects commonly observed in victims bitten by Bothrops snakes. The severity of the envenomation is dependent on the immunological condition of the victim. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of Botrhops jararaca venom on macrophage functions and TH1 / TH2 cytokine balance.

Methods: Various amounts of B. jararaca venom were used, and the activation of macrophages was determined by cytotoxicity assays, hydrogen peroxide production, cell expansion, and phagocytosis. The release of cytokines presents in macrophages treated with B. jararaca venom were measured by ELISA.

Results: The results showed that the Bothrops jararaca venom altered the function of peritoneal macrophage cultures, increasing cytotoxicity and production of H2O2. The venom was able to inhibit cell expansion and phagocytosis. The effects of the venom on immunological mediator production in peritoneal macrophage cultures resulted in an increase in TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 production at 24 hours of treatment. The maximum production of NO and IFN-γ were observed at 24–48 and 48-72 hours, respectively. The elevated production of IL-4 and -10 were observed from 24 up to 120 hours after venom exposition.

Conclusion: The combined data suggest that Bothrops jararaca venom has an immunomodulatory immunomodulatory effect for   first 24 hours, of venom treatment was observed a balance between TH1 and TH2 cytokines. After this time period with a TH2-dominant response in the TH1/Th2 cytokines.

Keywords: venom, immunomodulator, activation, mediators

Article Details

How to Cite
VALDERRAMA RP, Nuñez et al. Efficacy of Bothrops jararaca venom on the changes in immune functions and TH1/TH2 cytokine balance in murine macrophages. Medical Research Archives, [S.l.], v. 4, n. 7, nov. 2016. ISSN 2375-1924. Available at: <http://journals.ke-i.org/index.php/mra/article/view/816>. Date accessed: 17 oct. 2017.
venom, immunomodulator, activation, mediators
Research Articles


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