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Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) occurs with a frequency of 3.5/1,000,000/year cases. AML patients have invasion of diseased cells (blasts) medullary insufficiency, microenvironmental dysfunction, defects in the proliferation and function of the remaining normal cells, and global dysfunction of the immune system, and may present fatigue, fever, blotches on the body, and bone or joint pain. The diagnosis must be made based on clinical, morphological, immunophenotypical, molecular, and cytogenetic findings. Prognostic assessment can determine the choice of treatment for the patient, and it depends on many different patient-related factors. Traditionally, the karyotype has been used as the principal prognostic factor in de novo leukemias. The conventional treatment for AML is divided between induction and consolidation. The future of AML treatment, particularly in cases of more reserved prognoses, should count on the assistance of genomics with panels of genetic changes or sequencing, new drugs, and targeted therapy. This papers describes the various alternatives available and under investigation, in Brazil and worldwide.
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