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A Review Article on Lichen Sclerosus, Affecting Ano-Genital Area in Females



Objective: To collect detailed up-to-date knowledge, using systematic review of the medical literature, that is specific to the Dermatologic condition of Lichen Sclerosus (LS), which mainly affects the ano-genital area of female patients. This article will review: The disease epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, complications, differential diagnosis, diagnostic methods, histopathology, psychosocial impact, and treatment options.
Background: LS is a chronic dermatologic condition. The condition was described at the end of the 19th century. LS incidence is higher in females than in males, affecting mainly the female ano-genital area. Diverse and crippling complications exist, including malignant transformation. Clinical features progress towards severe vulvar anatomic distortion, which results in devastating psychosocial implications. Mainstay treatments are both medical and surgical; recent randomized controlled trials promote the use of topical Calcineurin inhibitors.
Methods: I used a meticulous strategy across databases, led by pre-specified keywords, followed by the application of database-specific filters to scrutinize the hierarchy of available medical literature, from guidelines, systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials to medical papers with weak evidence. Some articles were requested from the British library.
Results: I used around 70 references; the most relevant data were extracted. This article is divided into sections of topics, starting from an introduction to a conclusion.
Conclusion: This article will enable the medical researcher to obtain a detailed perspective of the condition LS. Thus, a researcher can seek strongest evidence for his original research.


Lichen Sclerosus, Ano-genital, females, ECM-1, Borrelia burgdorferi.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18103/mra.v2i6.455