HOME | LOG IN | SIGN UP

Working Towards Universal Implementation of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination to Prevent Cervical Cancer

Annekathryn Goodman, Naima Joseph

Abstract


Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination should be included in national immunization programs, as part of a comprehensive approach to cervical cancer prevention and control. The practical aspects of vaccine uptake are now the most important issue in HPV vaccine research from a public-health perspective.  Increasing uptake, specifically in regions where disease burden is highest, will require thoughtful consideration of cost-effectiveness, innovative financing mechanisms, novel approaches to vaccine vehicle delivery and public acceptance.  We review ongoing critical barriers and challenges to implementation of HPV vaccination.


Keywords


Human Papillomavirus vaccination, HPV, barriers to HPV vaccination

Full Text:

References


Africa Blog. (2011). Rwanda takes on cervical cancer. http://www.one.org/africa/blog/rwanda-takes-on-cervical-cancer/ accessed on August 26, 2015.

Agosti, J.M., & Goldie, S.J. (2007). Introducing HPV vaccine in developing countries– key challenges and issues, New England Journal of Medicine, 356, 1908–1909.

Akinyemiju, T.F. (2012). Socio-economic and health access determinants of breast and cervical cancer screening in low-income countries: analysis of the World Health Survey, PLoS One, 7(11):e48834. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0048834. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0048834 accessed on August 26, 2015.

Batson, A., Meheus, F., & Brooke. S. (2006). Innovative financing mechanisms to accelerate the introduction of HPV vaccines in developing countries. Vaccine, 24(S3), 219-225.

Binagwaho, A., Wagner, C.M., Gatera, M., Karema, C., Nutt, C.T., & Ngabo, F. (2012). Achieving High Coverage in Rwanda’s National Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Programme, Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 90, 623-628.

Broutet, N., Lehnertz, N., Mehl, G., Camacho, A.V., Bloem, P., Chandra-Mouli, V., Ferguson, J., & Dick, B. (2013). Effective health interventions for adolescents that could be integrated with human papillomavirus vaccination programs, Journal of Adolescent Health, 53, 6-13.

Clark, T. (2014). From Epidemics to Elimination: Introduction of MenAfriVac into Sub-Saharan Africa. Centers for Disease Control, http://www.cdc.gov/meningococcal/global.html accessed on August 26, 2015.

Dorleans, F., Giambi, C., Dematte, L., Cotter, S., Stefanoff, P., Mereckiene, J., O'Flanagan, D., Lopalco, P.L., D'Ancona, F., & Levy-Bruhl, D. (2010) The current state of introduction of human papillomavirus vaccination into national immunisation schedules in Europe: first results of the VENICE2 2010 survey. Eurosurveillance, 15(47), pii=19730 http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ViewArticle.aspx?ArticleId=19730

accessed on August 26, 2015.

Drolet, M., Bénard, É., Boily, M.C., Ali, H., Baandrup, L., Bauer, H., Beddows, S., Brisson, J., Brotherton, J.M., Cummings, T., Donovan, B., Fairley, C.K., Flagg, E.W., Johnston, A.M., Kahn, J.A., Kavanagh, K., Kjaer, S.K., Kliewer, E.V., Lemieux-Mellouki, P., Markowitz, L., Mboup, A., Mesher, D., Niccolai, L., Oliphant, J., Pollock, K.G., Soldan, K., Sonnenberg, P., Tabrizi, S.N., Tanton, C., & Brisson, M. (2015). Population-level impact and herd effects following papillomavarisu vaccination programmes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infectious Disease 15, 565-580.

Ferlay, J., Soerjomataram, I., Ervik, M., Dikshit, R., Eser, S., Mathers, C., Rebelo, M., Parkin, D.M., Forman, D., & Bray, F. (2012). GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet].Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2010. http://www.iarc.fr/en/publications/eresources/cancerbases/ accessed on August 26, 2015.

Ferrer, H.B., Trotter, C., Hickman, M., & Audrey, S. (2014). Barriers and facilitators to HPV vaccination of young women in high-income countries: a qualitative systematic review and evidence synthesis. BMC Public Health 14, 700. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/14/700 accessed on August 26, 2015.

Franco, E.L., Tsu, V., Herrero, R., Lazcano-Ponce, E., Hildesheim, A., Munoz, N., Murillo, R., Sanches, G.I., & Andrus, J.K. (2008). Integration of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination and Cervical Cancer Screening in Latin America and the Caribbean, Vaccine, 26S, L88–L95.

GlaxoSmithKline Vaccine HPV-007 Study Group, Romanowski, B., de Borba, P.C., Naud, P.S., Roteli-Martins, C.M., De Carvalho, N.S., Teixeira, J.C., Aoki, F., Ramjattan, B., Shier, R.M., Somani, R., Barbier, S., Blatter, M.M., Chambers, C., Ferris, D., Gall, S.A,, Guerra, F.A,, Harper, D.M., Hedrick, J.A., Henry, D.C., Korn, A.P., Kroll, R., Moscicki, A.B., Rosenfeld, W.D,, Sullivan, B.J., Thoming, C.S., Tyring, S.K., Wheeler, C.M., Dubin, G., Schuind, A., Zahaf, T., Greenacre, M., & Sgriobhadair, A. (2009). Sustained efficacy and immunogenicity of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine: analysis of a randomised placebo-controlled trial up to 6.4 years. Lancet, 374, 1975-1978.

Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI alliance). (2015). GAVI Alliance Secretariat, World Bank, UNICEF Supply Division. 2015 Pneumococcal AMC Annual Report, http://www.gavi.org/library/gavi-documents/amc/searchtext/AMC%20annual%20report/

accessed August 26, 2015.

Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI alliance). (2013). GAVI injects new life into HPV vaccine rollout. Lancet, 381, 1688, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)61058-2

Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI alliance). (2013). GAVI alliance secretariat. Advance market Commitment for pneumococcal vaccines Annual report, 1 April 2012 to 31 March 2013, http://www.gavialliance.org/funding/pneumococcal-amc/ accessed August 26, 2015.

Goldie, S.J., O'Shea, M., Diaz, M., & Kim, S.Y. (2008). Benefits, cost requirements and cost-effectiveness of the HPV 16, 18 vaccine for cervical cancer prevention in developing countries: policy implications,. Reproductive Health Matters. 16, 86-96.

Goodman, A. (2013). The social ecology of cervical cancer: the challenges to pap smear screening. International Journal Clinical Medicine 4, 16-20 Published Online December 2013 (http://www.scirp.org/journal/ijcm) http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ijcm.2013.412A1004 .

Guerrero, A.M., Genuino, A.J., Santilan, M., Praditsitthikorn, N., Chantarastapornchit, V., Teerawattananon, Y., Alejandria, M., & Toral, J.A. (2015). A cost-utility analysis of cervical cancer screening and human papillomavirus vaccination in the Philippines. BMC Public Health 15, 730. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/15/730 accessed August 26, 2015.

Herweijer, E., Feldman, A.L., Ploner, A., Arnheim-Dahlstrom, L., Uhnoo, I., Netterlid, E., Dillner, J., Sparén, P., & Sundstrom, K. (2015). The participation of HPV-vaccinated women in a national cervical screening program: population-based cohort study. Plos One 10, e0134185. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0134185 accessed August 26, 2015.

Hill, H.A., Elam-Evans, L.D., Yankey, D., Singleton, J.A., & Kolasa, M. (2015). National, regional, state, and selected local area vaccination coverage among adolescents aged 13 -17 years – United States, 2014 Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 64, 784-792. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6433a1.htm accessed August 26, 2015.

Holman, D.M., Benard, V., Roland, K.B., Watson, M., Liddon, N., & Stokley, S. (2014). Barriers to human papillomavirus vaccination among US adolescents: a systematic review of the literature. JAMA Pediatrics 168, 76-82.

Hutubessy, R., Levin, A., Wang, S., Morgan, W., Ally, M., John, T., & Broutet, N. (2012). A case study using the United Republic of Tanzania: costing nationwide HPV vaccine delivery using the WHO Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing Tool. BMC Medicine, 10, 136. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/10/136 accessed August 26, 2015.

International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, (IAVI). (2008). Policy Brief. Procurement and Pricing of New Vaccines for Developing Countries. August 2008. http://www.rho.org/files/IAVI_vaccine_procurement_pricing.pdf accessed August 26, 2015.

Joura, E.A., Giuliano, A.R., Iversen, O.-E., Bouchard, C., Mao, C., Mehlsen, J., Moreira Jr., E.D., Ngan, Y., Petersen, L.K., Lazcano-Ponce, E., Pitisuttithum, P., Restrepo, J.A., Stuart, G., Woelber, L., Yang, Y.C., Cuzick, J., Garland, S.M., Huh, W., Kjaer, S.K., Bautista, O.M., Chan, I.S.F., Chen, J., Gesser, R., Moeller, E., Ritter, M., Vuocolo, S., & Luxemberg, A. (2015). A 9-valent HPV vaccine against infection and intraepithelial neoplasia in women. New England Journal Medicine, 372, 711-723.

Kane, M.A., Sherris, J., Coursage, P., Aguado, T., & Cutts, F. (2006). HPV vaccine use in the developing World. Vaccine, 24(S3), 132–139.

Kash, N., Lee, M.A., Kollipara, R., Downing, C., Guidry, J., & Tyring, S.K. (2015). Safety and efficacy data on vaccines and immunization to human papillomavirus. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 4, 614-633.

Kim, J.J., Andres-Beck. B., & Goldie, S.J. (2007). The value of including boys in an HPV vaccination program: a cost-effectiveness analysis in a low-resource setting. British Journal of Cancer, 97, 1322–1328.

Kim, S.Y., Sweet, S., Chang, J., & Goldie, S.J. (2011). Comparative evaluation of the potential impact of rotavirus versus HPV in GAVI-eligible countries: A preliminary analysis focused on the relative disease burden, BMC Infectious Diseases, 11, 174. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2334/11/174 accessed August 26, 2015.

Kosalaraksa, P., Mehisen, J., Vesikari, T., Forstén, A., Helm, K., van Damme, P., Joura, E.A., Ciprero, K., Maansson, R., Luxembourg, A., & Sobanjo-ter Meulen, A. (2015). An open-label, randomized study of 9-valent human papillomavirus vaccine given concomitantly with diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, and poliomyelitis vaccines to healthy adolesecents 11-15 years of age. Pediatric Infectious Disease, 34, 627-634.

Larson, H.J., Brocard. P., & Garnett. G. (2010). The India HPV Vaccine suspension. Lancet, 376, 572–573.

Louie, K.S., de Sanjose, S., & Mayaud, P. (2009). Epidemiology and prevention of human papillomavirus and cervical cancer in sub-Saharan Africa: a comprehensive review. Tropical Medicine & International Health, 14, 1287–1302.

Markowitz, L.E., Hariri, S., Lin, C., Dunne, E.F., Steinau, M., McQuillan, G., & Unger, E.R. (2013). Reduction in HPV prevalence among young women following vaccine introduction in the United States, National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. 2003–2010, Journal of Infectious Disease, 208, 385–393.

Markowitz, L.E., Tsu, V., Deeks, S.L., Cubie, H., Wang, S.A., Vicari, A.S., & Brotherton, J.M. (2012). Human papillomavirus vaccine introduction--the first five years. Vaccine, 30(Suppl 5), F139-148.

Muñoz, N., Bosch, F.X., de Sanjosé, S., Herrero, R., Castellsagué, X., Shah, K.V., Snijders, P.J., Meijer, C.J., & International Agency for Research on Cancer Multicenter Cervical Cancer Study Group. (2003). Epidemiologic classification of human papillomavirus types associated with cervical cancer. New England Journal Medicine, 348, 518-527. http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa021641 accessed August 26, 2015.

Nakalembe, M., Mirembe, F.M., & Banura, C. (2015). Vaccines against human papillomavirus in low and middle income countries: a review of safety, immunogenicity and efficacy. Infectious agents and cancer, 10, 17. http://www.infectagentscancer.com/content/10/1/17 accessed August 26, 2015.

Onder, R.F. (2008). HPV vaccine mandates: just say 'no' to the "great big public health experiment.” Missouri Medicine, 105, 8-11.

Organization for the Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (2014). OECD Health Statistics 2014. http://www.oecd.org/unitedstates/Briefing-Note-UNITED-STATES-2014.pdf accessed August 27, 2015.

Owsianka, B., Gańczak, M. (2015). Evaluation of human papilloma virus (hpv) vaccination strategies and vaccination coverage in adolescent girls worldwide. PRZEGL EPIDEMIOL, 69, 53-58.

Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH). (2010). Report of an African Regional Meeting on Cervical Cancer. Improved Cervical Cancer Prevention: Planning Now for a Better Future, September 14–15, 2010, Kampala, Uganda. Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH). http://www.rho.org/files/PATH_Africa_cxca_conf_report_2010.pdf accessed on August 26, 2015.

Petrosky, E., Bocchini, J.A., Hairi, S., Chesson, H., Curtis, C.R., Saraiya, M., Unger, E.R., & Markowitz, L.E. (2015). Use of 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine: updated HPV vaccination recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report MMWR 62, 300-304. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6411a3.htm accessed on August 26, 2015.

Sangwa-Lugoma, G., Mahmud, S., Nasr, S.H., Liaras, J., Kayembe, P.K., Tozin, R.R., Drouin, P., Lorincz, A., Ferenczy, A., & Franco, E.L. (2006). Visual inspection as a cervical cancer screening method in a primary health setting in Africa. International Journal of Cancer, 119, 1389–1395.

Sankaranarayanan, R., Anorlu, R., Sangwa-Lugoma, G., & Denny, L.A. (2013), Infrastructure requirements for human papillomavirus vaccination and cervical cancer screening in sub-Saharan Africa. Vaccine, 31:suppl 5, F45-52.

Saxenian,H. (2007). HPV vaccine adoption in developing countries: cost and financing issues. International AIDS Vaccine Initiative/Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH), http://www.rho.org/files/IAVI_PATH_HPV_financing.pdf accessed August 26, 2015.

Sharma, M., Ortendahl, J., van der Ham, E., Sy, S., & Kim, J.J. (2012). Cost-effectiveness of human papillomavirus vaccination and cervical cancer screening in Thailand. BJOG 119, 166-176.

Shiffman, J., & Smith, S. (2007). Generation of political priority for global health initiatives: a framework and case study of maternal mortality. Lancet, 370, 1370–1379.

Snyman, L.C., Dreyer, G., Botha, M.H., van der Merwe, F.H., & Becker, P.J. (2015). The vaccine and cervical cancer screen (VACCS) project: linking cervical cancer screening to HPV vaccination in South-West district of Tshwane, Gauteng, South Africa. South African Medical Journal, 105(2), http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?pid=S0256-95742015000200020&script=sci_arttext accessed August 26, 2015.

Tambouret, R. (2013). Screening for cervical cancer in low-resource settings in 2011. Archives Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, 137, 782-790.

Techakehakij, W., & Feldman, R.D. (2008). Cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccination compared with Pap smear screening on a national scale: A literature Review, Vaccine, 26, 6258–6265.

Uddin, M.J., Larson, C.P., Oliveras, E., Khan, A.I., Quaiyam, M.A., & Saha, N.C. (2010). Child immunization coverage in urban slums of Bangladesh: impact of an intervention package. Health Policy Planning 25, 50-60.

Ueda, Y., Enomoto, T., Sekine, M., Egawa-Takata, T., Morimoto, A., & Kimura, T. (2015). Japan’s failure to vaccinate girls against human papilloma virus. American Journal Obstetrics Gynecology, 212, 405-406.

United Nations Development Programs. (2015). Millennium Goals 5 : Improve maternal health, http://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/mdgoverview/mdg_goals/mdg5/ accessed on August 26, 2015.

Walboomers, J.M., Jacobs, M.V., Manos, M.M., Bosch, F.X., Kummer, J.A., Shah, K.V., Snijders, P.J., Peto, J., Meijer, C.J., & Muñoz, N. (1999). Human papillomavirus is a necessary cause of invasive cervical cancer worldwide. Journal of Pathology, 189, 12–19.

Watson-Jones, D., Mugo, N., Lees, S., Mathai, M. Vusha, S. Ndirangu, G., & Ross, D.A. (2015). Access and attitudes to HPV vaccination amongst hard-to-reach populations in Kenya. PloS One 10:e0123701. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4482601/ accessed on August 26, 2015.

World Health Organization (WHO). (2009). Human papillomavirus vaccines. WHO position paper. Weekly Epidemiology Record, 84, 118-131. http://www.who.int/wer/2009/wer8415.pdf accessed on August 26, 2015.

Yancey, A.M., Pitlick, J.M., Forinash, A.B. (2010). The prophylactic role for the human papillomavirus quadrivalent vaccine in males. Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 44, 1314–1318.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18103/mra.v2i2.363

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.