HOME | LOG IN | SIGN UP

Association of cardiorespiratory fitness and vascular risk on cognitive function in young adults

Jungyun Hwang, Darla M Castelli

Abstract


The purpose of this study was to examine the interdependent associations between health indices [i.e. cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity, body mass index (BMI)], C-reactive protein (CRP) and cognitive function in young adults. It was hypothesized that a regression analysis would confirm direct effects of the health indices and CRP on cognitive function. Health indices including cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity level, BMI and CRP were collected to examine the relationship with cognitive function in healthy, young adults (n=93; 57.0% female, aged 23.01± 3.67 years). Cognitive function was assessed using neuropsychological test battery [i.e. Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test, KBIT; Trail Making Test, (TMT); Stroop test; Psychomotor Vigilance Task, (PVT); and Dela ASSOCIATION OF CARDIORESPIRATORY FITNESS AND VASCULAR RISK  ON COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN YOUNG ADULTS yed-Matched-to-Sample memory task, (DMS)]. Lower cognitive function of inhibitory control in the Stroop test and working memory in the DMS were observed among high CRP risk (M = 5.65, SD ± 1.78) compared to the low CRP risk (M = 0.57, SD ± 0.19) participants. These results suggest that CRP level in the high-risk condition causes deleterious effect on cognitive function tasks requiring inhibitory control and working memory. In addition, CRP, which was positively associated with BMI, but negatively related to cardiorespiratory fitness, had negative effects on the working memory and the inhibitory control. As predicted, higher cardiorespiratory fitness was positively associated with greater inhibitory control and working memory. Our findings demonstrated that CRP level in the high-risk condition causes deleterious effect on cognitive function among tasks demanding inhibitory control and working memory. The beneficial effect of physical exercise-induced improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness on vascular risk and cognitive functions was significant; therefore, improved cardiorespiratory fitness may reduce or suppress vascular risk with potential positive effects on cognitive health.


Keywords


cardiorespiratory fitness; C-reactive protein; cognitive function

Full Text:

References


ACSM. (2013). ACSM's guidelines for exercise testing and prescription (9th ed). Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, New York.

Albert, M. A., Glynn, R. J., & Ridker, P. M. (2004). Effect of physical activity on serum C-reactive protein. Am J Cardiol., 15(93(2)), 221-225.

Author, Centeio, E., Author, J., Barcelona, J. M., Glowacki, E. M., Calvert, H. G., & Nicksic, H. M. (2014). VII. The history of physical activity and academic performance research: informing the future. Monogr Soc Res Child Dev., 79(4), 119-148.

Author, Brothers, R. M., Author, Nicksic, N. H., Glowacki, E., Harrison, M., & Dongen, D. V. (2013). Health Indices and Cognitive Performance in Emerging Adults. J Nov Physiother, 4(189).

Chudasama, & Yogita. (2010). Delayed (Non) Match-to-Sample Task. In I. Stolerman (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Psychopharmacology (pp. 372-372): Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Church, T., Barlow, C., Earnest, C., Kampert, J., Priest, E., & Blair, S. (2002). Associations Between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and C-Reactive Protein in Men. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 22(22), 1869-1876.

Craig, C. L., Marshall, A. L., Sjostrom, M., Bauman, A. E., Booth, M. L., Ainsworth, B. E., Oja, P. (2003). International physical activity questionnaire: 12-country reliability and validity. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 35(8), 1381-1395. doi: 10.1249/01.MSS.0000078924.61453.FB

Davenport, M. H., Hogan, D. B., Eskes, G. A., Longman, R. S., & Poulin, M. J. (2012). Cerebrovascular Reserve: The Link Between Fitness and Cognitive Function? Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 40(3), 153-158. doi: 10.1097/JES.0b013e3182553430

Dinges, D., Pack, F., Williams, K., Gillen, K., Powell, J., Ott, G., . . . Pack, A. (1997). Cumulative sleepiness, mood disturbance, and psychomotor vigilance performance decrements during a week of sleep restricted to 4-5 hours per night. Sleep, 20(4), 267-277.

Dinges, D., & Powell, J. (1985). Microcomputer analyses of performance on portable, simple visual RT task during sustained operations. . Behav Res Methods Instrum, 17, 652-655.

Drummond, S., Bischoff-Grethe, A., Dinges, D., Ayalon, L., Mednick, S., & Meloy, M. (2005). The neural basis of the psychomotor vigilance task. Sleep, 28(9), 1059-1068.

Elias, M. F. E., P. K. Sullivan, L. M. Wolf, P. A. D'Agostino, R. B. (2003). Lower cognitive function in the presence of obesity and hypertension: the Framingham heart study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord, 27(2), 260-268.

Erickson, K. I., Voss, M. W., Prakash, R. S., Basak, C., Szabo, A., Chaddock, L., . . . Kramer, A. F. (2011). Exercise training increases size of hippocampus and improves memory. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(7), 3017-3022. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1015950108

Ford, E. S. (2002). Does exercise reduce inflammation? Physical activity and C-reactive protein among U.S. adults. Epidemiology, 13, 561-568.

Ge, X., Xu, X., Feng, C., Wang, Y., Li, Y., & Feng, B. (2013).

Relationships among serum C-reactive protein, receptor for advanced glycation products, metabolic dysfunction, and cognitive impairments. BMC Neurosci, 13(110).

Golden, C. (1978). Stroop Color and Word Test. . A Manual for Clinical and Experimental 414 Uses. Skoelting, Chicago, Illinois, 1-32.

Hayes, S., Forman, D., & Verfaellie, M. (2014). Cardiorespiratory Fitness Is Associated With Cognitive Performance in Older But Not Younger Adults. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci., gbu167.

Heinrich, P. C., Castell, J. V., & Andus, T. (1990). Interleukin-6 and the acute phase response. Biochem J Biochem J, 265, 621–636.

Hillman, C. H., Author, D. M., & Buck, S. M. (2005). Aerobic Fitness and Neurocognitive Function in Healthy Preadolescent Children. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 37(11), 1967-1974. doi: 10.1249/01.mss.0000176680.79702.ce

Hotamisligil, G. S., Arner, P., Caro, J. F., Atkinson, R. L., & Spiegelman, B. M. (1995). Increased adipose tissue expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in human obesity and insulin resistance. J Clin Invest, 95, 2409–2415.

Jae, S., Heffernan, K., Yoon, E., Le, M., Fernhall, B., & Park, W. (2009). The Inverse Association between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and C-Reactive Protein Is Mediated by Autonomic Function: A Possible Role of the Cholinergic Antiinflammatory Pathway. . Molecular Medicine, 15(9-10), 291-296.

Jialal, I., Devaraj, S., & Venugopal, S. K. (2004). C-Reactive Protein: Risk Marker or Mediator in Atherothrombosis? Hypertension, 44, 6-11.

Kasapis, C., & Thompson, P. D. (2005). The Effects of Physical Activity on Serum C-Reactive Protein and Inflammatory Markers. J Am Coll Cardiol., 45(10), 1563-1569.

Kaufman, A. S., and Kaufman, N. L. (1990). Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test. Circle Pines, MN.

Komulainen, P., Lakka, T., Kivipelto, M., Hassinen, M., Penttilä, L., Helkala, E., . . . Rauramaa, R. (2007). Serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein and cognitive function in elderly women. Age Ageing, 36(4), 443-448. doi: 10.1093/ageing/afm051

LaMonte, M., Durstine, J., Yanowitz, F., Lim, T., DuBose, K., Davis, P., & Ainsworth, B. (2002). Cardiorespiratory fitness and C-reactive protein among a tri-ethnic sample of women. Circulation, 106(4), 403-406.

Lohman, T. G., Roche, A. F., & Martorell, R. (1988). Anthropometric standardization reference manual. Champaign, IL : Human Kinetics Books.

Mahon, A. D., Dean, R. S., McIntosh, D. E., Marjerrison, A. D., Cole, A. S., Woodruff, M. E., & Lee, M. P. (2013). Acute Exercise Effects on Measures of Attention and Impulsivity in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of Educational and Developmental Psychology, 3(2).

Mueller, S. T., & Piper, B. J. (2014). The Psychology Experiment Building Language (PEBL) and PEBL Test Battery. J Neurosci Methods, 222, 250-259. doi: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2013.10.024

Nieder, A., & Miller, E. K. (2004). A parieto-frontal network for visual numerical information in the monkey. PNAS, 101, 7457–7462.

Noble, J., Manly, J., Schupf, N., Tang, M., Mayeux, R., & Luchsinger, J. (2010). Association of C-Reactive Protein With Cognitive Impairment. . Arch Neurol, 67(1), 87-92.

Novak, V., Last, D., Alsop, D. C., Abduljalil, A. M., Hu, K., Lepicovsky, L., . . . Lipsitz, L. A. (2006 ). Cerebral blood flow velocity and periventricular white matter hyperintensities in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 29(7), 1529-1534.

Ogden, Carroll, M. D., Kit, B. K., & Flegal, K. M. (2014). Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, 2011-2012. Journal of the American Medical Association, 311(8), 806-814.

Pate, R., Pratt, M., Blair, S., Haskell, W., Macera, C., Bouchard, C., . . . King, A. (1995). Physical activity and public health. A recommendation from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine. JAMA, 273(5), 402-407.

Pontifex, M. B., Saliba, B. J., Raine, L. B., Picchietti, D. L., & Hillman, C. H. (2012). Exercise Improves Behavioral, Neurocognitive, and Scholastic Performance in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. J Pediatr, 16(3), 543-551.

Rosenberg, D., Bull, F., Marshall, A., Sallis, J., & Bauman, A. (2008). Assessment of sedentary behavior with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. J Phys Act Health, 5(1), S30-44.

Sanchez-Cubillo, I., Perianez, J. A., Adrover-Roig, D., Rodriguez-Sanchez, J. M., Rios-Lago, M., Tirapu, J., & Barcelo, F. (2009). Construct validity of the Trail Making Test: role of task-switching, working memory, inhibition/interference control, and visuomotor abilities. J Int Neuropsychol Soc, 15(3), 438-450. doi: 10.1017/S1355617709090626

Semmler, A., Okulla, T., Sastre, M., Dumitrescu-Ozimek, L., & Heneka, M. T. (2005). Systemic inflammation induces apoptosis with variable vulnerability of different brain regions. J Chem Neuroanat, 30(2-3), 144-157.

Smith, Servesco, A., & Edwards, J. (2008). Exploring the validity of the comprehensive trail making test. Clin. Neuropsychol., 22, 507-518.

Smith, E., Hay, P., Campbell, L., & Trollor, J. N. (2011). A review of the association between obesity and cognitive function across the lifespan: implications for novel approaches to prevention and treatment. Obes Rev, 12(9), 740-755. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00920.x

Sofi, F., Valecchi, D., Bacci, D., Abbate, R., Gensini, G. F., Casini, A., & Macchi, C. (2011). Physical activity and risk of cognitive decline: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. J Intern Med, 269(1), 107-117. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2796.2010.02281.x

Stroop, J. (1935). Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions. J. Exp. Psychol., 18, 643-662.

Stuss, D. T., Floden, D., Alexander, M. P., Levine, B., & Katz, D. (2001). Stroop performance in focal lesion patients: Dissociation of processes and frontal lobe lesion location. Neuropsychologia, 39(771-786).

USDHHS. (2008a). 2008 physical activity guidelines for Americans. Washington, DC: DHHS. 2008., http://www.health.gov/paguidelines/guidelines/default.aspx.

USDHHS. (2008b). Healthy People 2010 [online] http://www. healthypeople.gov/Document (2000).

Vaynman, S., Ying, Z., & Gomez-Pinilla., F. (2004). Hippocampal BDNF mediates the efficacy of exercise on synaptic plasticity and cognition. Eur J Neurosci, 20(10), 2580-2590.

Vicenzini, E., Ricciardi, M. C., Altieri, M., Puccinelli, F., Bonaffini, N., Di Piero, V., & Lenzi, G. L. (2007). Cerebrovascular reactivity in degenerative and vascular dementia: a transcranial Doppler study. Eur Neurol., 58(2), 84-89.

Wendell, C. R., Gunstad, J., Waldstein, S. R., Wright, J. G., Ferrucci, L., & Zonderman, A. B. (2014). Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Accelerated Cognitive Decline With Aging. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 69(4), 455-462. doi: 10.1093/gerona/glt144

Wersching, H., Duning, T., Lohmann, H., Mohammadi, S., Stehling, C., Fobker, M., . . . Knecht, S. (2010). Serum C-reactive protein is linked to cerebral microstructural integrity and cognitive function (Vol. 74): Neurology.

Whiteman, A. S., Young, D. E., He, X., Chen, T. C., Wagenaar, R. C., Stern, C. E., & Schona, K. (2014). Interaction between serum BDNF and aerobic fitness predicts recognition memory in healthy young adults. Behavioural Brain Research, 259(302–312).

Zhu, D., Schreiner, P., Yaffe, K., Bryan, N., Launer, L., Sternfeld, B. (2014). Cardiorespiratory fitness and cognitive function in middle age: the CARDIA study. Neurology, 15(82), 1339-1346.

Zhu, Y. S., Tarumi, T., Tseng, T. Y., Palmer, D. M., Levine, B. D., & Zhang, R. (2013). Cerebral vasomotor reactivity during hypo- and hypercapnia in sedentary elderly and Masters athletes. J Cereb Blood

Flow Metab, 33(8), 1190-1196. doi: 10.1038/jcbfm.2013.66




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18103/mra.v0i3.209

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.