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Regenerative medicine and tissue engineering have the aim of restoring function due to tissue damage or organ failure. This goal can be achieved either by stimulating endogenous stem cells or by providing exogenous stem cells along with appropriate biomimetic scaffold and growth factors. Among the different sources and types of stem cells, particular attention has been given to adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (ADSCs). The use of ADSCs as source of adult stem cells offers numerous advantages: the collection technique is easier and less invasive than with bone marrow; these stem cells show a high proliferative rate in vitro and are endowed with multi-differentiative capability and tissue repair properties. On the other hand, therapies implying the use of growth factors for tissue regeneration are widely based on platelets: these anucleated cells are a rich source of growth factors and are physiologically involved in hemostasis, wound healing and tissue repair. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous platelet concentrate with antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties and a vehicle and source of growth factors. Due to these properties, PRP is increasingly used for regenerative medicine purposes, especially in the field of wound healing and osteoarthritis. In this review article, we give an overview of the combined action of ADSCs and PRP in therapeutic applications for these pathological conditions.
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