HOME | LOG IN | SIGN UP

Pathways to yawning: making sense of the Thompson cortisol hypothesis

Simon B. N. Thompson

Abstract


Yawning apparatus and the exact location of the yawn reflex remains controversial. Yet yawning is a significant behavioural response that may potentially be a new diagnostic marker of neurological disease such as multiple sclerosis. Evidence of brain cooling following yawning supports the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis which postulates the association between cortisol, electrical nerve activity and yawning within the known stress-response system, the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal-axis. Changes in cortisol levels are important because they present as a new potential diagnostic tool in the early diagnosis of neurological symptoms.

Keywords


Biomarker; Cortisol; Diagnosis; Neurological disorder; Pathways; Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis; Yawning

Full Text:

References


CATLI, T., ACARA, M., HANCI, D., ARIKAN, O. K.. & CINGI, C. 2014. Importance of yawning in the evaluation of excessive daytime sleepiness: a prospective clinical study. European Archives of Otorhinolaryngology, PMID:25261103.

FLEMING, W. E. & POLLAK, C. P. 2005. Sleep disorders in multiple sclerosis. Seminars in Neurology, 25:64-68.

GALLUP, A. C. & GALLUP, Jr. G. G. 2007. Yawning as a brain cooling mechanism: Nasal breathing and forehead cooling diminish the incidence of contagious yawning. Evolutionary Psychology, 5:1,92-101.

GIGANTI, F., HAYES, M. J., CIONI, G. & SALZARULO, P. 2007. Yawning frequency and distribution in preterm and near term infants assessed throughout 24-h recordings. Infant Behavior & Development, 30:641-647.

KIMIKO, A., WEISZ, S., DUNN, R., DI GIOACCHINO, M., NYENTAP, J., STANBOULY, S., THEURER, J., BUREAU, Y., AFFOO, R. & MARTIN, R. 2014. Occurrences of yawn and swallow are temporally related. Dysphagia, doi:10.1007/s00455-014-9573-2.

KRESTEL, H., WEISSTANNER, C., HESS, C., BASSETTI, C. & NIRKKO, a. & WIEST, R. 2013. Insular and caudate lesions release abnormal yawning in stroke patients. Brain Structure & Function, doi 10.1007/s00429-013-0684-6.

NORSCIA, I & PALAGI, E. 2011. Yawn contagion and empathy in Homo sapiens. PLoS One, 6:e28472.

PÉRIN, B., GOGEFROY, O., FALL, S. & DE MARCO, G. 2010. Aletrness in young healthy subjects: an fMRI study of brain region interactivity enhanced by a warning signal. Brain & Cognition, 72:271-281.

PLATEK, S. M., CRITTON, S. R., MYERS, T. E. & GALLUP, G. G. 2003. Contagious yawning: the role of self-awareness and mental state attribution. Cognitive Brain Research, 17:2,223-227.

PRASAD, H. 2008. Yawning … and why yawns are contagious: a theory on evolution and atavism. Medical Hypotheses, 71:2,307-325.

PROVINE, R. 2012. Curious behavior: yawning, laughing, hiccupping and beyond. 31-32. Belknap, New York.

REISSLAND, N., FRANCIS, B. & MASON, J. 2012. Development of fetal yawn compared with non-yawn mouth openings from 24-36 weeks gestation. PloS ONE, Nov21, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050569.

SARNECKI, J. 2008. Content and contagion in yawning. Philosophical Psychology, 21:6,721-737.

THOMPSON, S. B. N. 2010. The dawn of the yawn: is yawning a warning? Linking neurological disorders. Medical Hypotheses, 75:630-633.

THOMPSON, S. B. N. 2013. How to catch a yawn: initial observations of a randomized controlled trial. Neurology, 4:8,1-8,doi: WMC004371.

THOMPSON, S. B. N. 2014a. Yawning, fatigue and cortisol: expanding the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis. Medical Hypotheses, 83:4,494-496, doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2014.08.009.

THOMPSON, S. B. N. 2014b. This will make you yawn. New Scientist, 224:3000/3001,38-39.

THOMPSON, S. B. N. & BISHOP, P. 2012. Born to yawn? Understanding yawning as a warning of the rise in cortisol levels: randomized trial. Interactive Journal of Medical Research, 1:2,e4,1-9, doi: 10.2196/ijmr.2241.

THOMPSON, S. B. N., FRANKHAM, C. & BISHOP, P. 2014. The art of capturing a yawn using the science of nerve impulses and cortisol levels in a randomized controlled trial. Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis as a potential predictor of neurological impairment. International Journal of Arts & Sciences, 7:3,529-543, doi: http://www.universitypublications.net/ijas/0703/pdf/V4Z77.pdf

THOMPSON, S. B. N., ROSE, K. & RICHER, S. 2014. Yawning with cortisol: examining the neuroscience behind the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis for supporting rehabilitation of neurologically impaired individuals. Journal of Neuroscience & Rehabilitation, 1:1,1-11, doi: 2014.01.01/2374-9091: SS0003.

WALUSINSKI, O., NEAU, J-P. & BOUSSLAVSKY, J. 2010. Hand up! Yawn and raise your arm. International Journal of Stroke, 5:21-27.

WIMALARATNA, H. S. K. & CAPILDEO, R. 1988. Is yawning a brain stem phenomenon? Lancet, 331:8580,300.

VIGIER, M. J. (translated by). 1620. Les aphorismes d’Hippocrate. Lyon, J-A. Huguetan.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18103/mra.v0i3.135

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.