HOME | LOG IN | SIGN UP

Myofascia - the unexplored tissue: Myofascial kinetic lines in horses, a model for describing locomotion using comparative dissection studies derived from human lines

Vibeke Sødring Elbrønd, Rikke Mark Schultz

Abstract


The precise functional role of connective tissue, and especially that of myofascia, remains largely unexplored. With this in mind, the present study has chosen to focus on an improved understanding of the interconnected web of fascia formed by connective tissue throughout the whole body, with particular consideration to force transmission, biomechanics of the whole body and fascia contractility. The specific aim of the present study was to reveal the inter-connective functionality of the locomotory system in a mammal other than humans, namely the horse.

Dissections of horses (n=26) were undertaken in order to verify the existence of, as well as compare the similar functional interconnected lines and structures to, those found in humans. This study found that it was necessary to redefine the human lines described by Myers (2009), owing to variations specific to horses arising from fundamental anatomical differences between bipeds and quadrupeds. Nevertheless, the myofascial kinetic lines presented in this study provide an anatomical foundation for an improved understanding of locomotion. Indeed, one in which the whole body is considered in a holistic way, rather than the simplified description of the action of single muscles. It is concluded that the lines described in this study form the basis of a readily use-able tool that can be applied by practitioners to track the main cause of locomotory problems in horses afflicted with impaired performance.

 


Keywords


Biomechanics; Equine; Fascia; Functional lines; Locomotion; Myofascia

Full Text:

References


Adams OR (1987) Trimming and shoeing of the normal foot. In: Lameness in horses abridged 3th ed., pp. 393-401. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Best TM, Gharaibeh B, Huard J, (2013) Stem cells angiogenesis and muscle healing: a potential role in massage therapies. Postgrad Med J 89, 666-670.

Budras K-D, Sack WO, Röck S (2009) Anatomy of the horse, First ed, Schlütersche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH & Co KG, Hannover, Germany,

Carvalhais VO, Ocarino J de M, Araújo VL, et al. ST, 2013. Myofascial force transmission between the latissimus dorsi and gluteus maximus muscles: an in vivo experiment. J Biomech 46, 1003-1007.

Constantinescu GM, Habel RE, Sack WO (2012) Illustrated Veterinary Anatomical Nomenclature. 3rd revised ed, (ed Schaller O). Enke Verlag, Stuttgart, Germany.

Denoix J-M (1999) Spinal biomechanics and functional anatomy. Vet. Clin. N. Am: Equine Pract. 15, 27-40.

Denoix J-M, Pailloux J-P (2009) Physical therapy and massage for the horse, 4th ed, pp. 52 – 55. Manson Publishing Ltd 2001, UK.

Evrard, P (2002) La collonne cervicale, thoracique au lombaire. In Ostéopathie vétérinaire. Introduction á l’Ostéopathie structurelle appliquée au cheval, 1st ed, pp.283 – 395. Olivier éditeur, Thy-Le-Chäteau, Belgique.

Faber M, Johnston C, Schamhardt H, et al. (2001) Basic three-dimensional kinematics of the vertebral column of horses trotting on a treadmill. Am J Vet Res 62, 757-764.

Gussekloo SWS, Lankester J, Kersten W, et al. (2011) Effect of differences in tendon properties on functionality of the passive stay apparatus in horses. The Am J of Vet Res 72, 474-483.

Haussler KK, Bertram JEA, Gellman K, et al. (2001) Segmental in vivo vertebral kinematics at the walk, trot and canter: a preliminary study. Equine Vet J 33, 160-164.

Huijing PA (2003) Muscular force transmission necessitates a multilevel integrative approach to the analysis of function of skeletal muscle. Exercise and Sport Science Reviews 31, 167-175.

Huijing PA, Baan GC (2008) Myofascial force transmission via extramuscular pathways occurs between antagonistic muscles. Cells Tissues Organs 188, 400-414.

Huijing PA, Yaman A, Ozturk, et al. (2011) Effects of knee joint angle on global and local strains within human triceps surae muscle: MRI analysis indicating in vivo myofascial force transmission between synergistic muscles. Surg Radiol Anat 33, 869-79.

Klingler W, Velders M, Hoppe K, et al. (2014) Clinical relevance of fascial tissue and dysfunctions. Curr Pain Headache Rep 18, 439.

König HE, Liebich HG (2009) Veterinary Anatomy of Domestic Mammals, 4th ed, (eds König HE, Liebich HG) pp. 277 – 278, Schattauer, Stuttgart, Deutschland.

Langevin HM, Cornbrooks CJ, Taatjes DJ (2004) Fibroblasts form a body-wide cellular network. Histochem Cell Biol 122, 7 – 15.

Langevin HM (2006) Connective tissue: a body-wide signalling network? Med Hypotheses 66, 1074-1077.

Langevin HM, Bouffard NA, Fox JR, et al. (2011) Fibroblast cytoskeletal remodeling contributes to connective tissue tension. J Cell Physiol 226, 1166-1175.

Langevin HM, Nedergaard M, Howe AK (2013) Cellular control of connective tissue matrix tension. J Cell Biochem 114, 1714-1719.

Lesimple C, Fureix C, De Margerie E, et al. (2012) Towards a postural indicator of back pain in horses (Equus caballus). PLoS ONE 7, e44604.

Maas H, Sandercock TG (2008). Are skeletal muscles independent actuators? Force transmission from soleus muscle in the cat. J Appl Physiol 104, 1557-1567.

Masi AT, Nair K, Evans T, et al. (2010) Clinical, biomechanical, and physiological translational interpretations of human resting myofascial tone and tension. Int J Ther Massage Bodywork 3, 16-28.

Myers, T (2009) Anatomy Trains – Myofascial meridians for manual and movement therapists, 2nd ed, Churchill Livingstone, Elsevier, England.

Nickel R, Schummer A, Seiferle E, (1977) Bewegungsapparat. In Lehrbuch der Anatomie der Haustiere I, 5.ed, pp. 231 -232. Verlag Paul Parey, Berlin und Hamburg, Deutschland.

Paoletti S (2001) Embryologie. In Faszien-Anatomie, Structuren, Techniken. 1. ed, pp.1 – 15. Urban & Fischer Verlag, München, Deutschland.

Purslow PP (2010) Muscle fascia and force transmission. J of Bodywork & Movement Therapies 14, 411-417.

Rhodin M, Gómez Alvarez CB, Byström A, et al. (2009) The effect of different head and neck position on the caudal back and hindlimb kinematics in the elite dressage horse at trot. Equine Vet. J 41, 274-279.

Richter P, Hebgen E (2009) Models of myofascial chains. In Trigger Points and Muscle Chains in Osteopathy, 1st ed, pp. 10 -26. Georg Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart, Germany.

Ross MW and Dyson SJ (2003) Horseshoes and shoeing. In: Diagnosis and management of lameness in the horse, 1st ed, pp. 269-270. Saunders, Elsevier, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

Schleip R, Klingler W, Lehmann-Horn F (2006a) Fascia is able to contract in smooth muscle-like manner and thereby influence musculoskeletal mechanics. In: Proceedings from the 5th World Congress of Biomechanics, (ed Liepsch D), pp. 51-54. Medimond international proceedings, Munich, Germany.

Schleip R, Naylor IL, Ursu D, et al. (2006b) Passive muscle stiffness may be influence by active contractility of intramuscular connective tissue. Med Hypotheses 66, 66-71.

Schleip R, Findley TW, Chaitow L, et al. (2012a). Fascia - the tensional network of the Human Body. 1st ed, (eds Schleip R, Findley TW, Chaitow L, et al.), pp.159 – 60. Churchill Livingstone, Elsevier Ltd., UK.

Schleip R, Jäger H, Klingler W (2012b). What is ‘fascia’? A review of different nomenclatures. J Bodywork and Movement Ther 16, 496-502.

Sleijper EJ (1946) Comparative Biologic-anatomical on the Vertebral column and Spinal musculature of Mammals investigations, 1st ed, N.V. Noord-Hollandche Uitdervers Maatschappij, Amsterdam.

Stubbs NC, Hodges, PW, Jeffcott LB, et al. (2006) Functional anatomy of the caudal thoracolumbar and lumbosacral spine in the horse. Equine Vet J 38, 393– 399.

Tian M, Herbert RD, Hoang P, et al. (2012) Myofascial force transmission between the human soleus and gastrocnemius muscles during passive knee motion. J Appl Physiol 113, 517-523.

Van De Water L, Varney S, Tomasek JJ (2013) Mechanoregulation of the myofibroblast in wound contraction, scarring and fibrosis: Opportunities for new therapeutic intervention. Adv Wound Care (New Rochelle) 2, 122-141.

Vleeming A, Pool-Goudzwaard AL, Stoeckart R, et al. (1995) The posterior layer of the thoracolumbar fascia. Its function in load transfer from spine to legs. Spine 20, 753-758.

Vogt C., 2011. Zusammenhang zwischen Kiefergelenkemechanik und Ganzkörperstatik by Ros K. In: Lehrbuch der Zahnheilkunde beim Pferd, 1st ed, pp. 35 – 39. Schattauer GmbH, Stuttgart, Deutschland.

Weeren PR, McGowan C, Haussler KK (2010) Development of a structural and functional understanding of the equine back. Equine Vet J 42, 393-400.

Wipff PJ, Rifkin DB, Meister JJ, et al. (2007) Myofibroblast contraction activates latent TGF-beta 1 from the extracellular matrix. J Cell Biol 179, 1311-1323.

Yucesoy CA, Baan G, Huijing PA (2010) Epimuscular myofascial force transmission occurs in the rat between the deep flexor muscles and their antagonistic muscles. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 20, 118-126.

Yucesoy CA, Huijing PA (2007) Substantial effects of epimuscular myofascial force transmission on muscular mechanics have major implications on spastic muscle and remedial surgery. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 7, 664-679.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18103/mra.v0i3.125

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.