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Background: Factor V (FV) B-domain contains an acidic region (FV-AR2) and a basic region (FV-BR), which interact with each other and maintain FV in a procofactor form; removal of either region via deletion/proteolysis results in an active FVa molecule. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor type-1 (TFPI) and type-2 (TFPI2) each contain a C-terminus basic segment homologous to FV-BR; this region in TFPI (and predicted in TFPI2) binds to FV-AR2 in platelet FVa (that lacks FV-BR) with high affinity and inhibits FVa function.
Objectives: To understand molecular interactions between FV-AR2 with FV-BR, TFPI-BRand TFPI2-BR.
Methods: Circular dichroism (CD) and molecular modeling approaches.
Results and Conclusions: CD experiments reveal the presence of ~20% helical content in both FV-AR2 and FV-BR but each lacks beta-sheet. Predicted structures of FV-AR2 and FV-BR, obtained using threading (I-TASSER), are consistent with the CD data and have compact folds with hydrophobic residues in the interior and charged residues on the surface. Scores from QMEAN and ModFOLD servers indicate a very high probability for each structure to be native. Predicted models of Kunitz domain-3 of TFPI and TFPI2 each with C-terminal basic tail are consistent with known homologous structures. Docking experiments using ClusPro indicate that the acidic groove of FV-AR2 has high shape complementarity to accommodate the conserved basic residues in FV-BR (1002-RKKKK-1006), TFPI-BR (256-RKRKK-260) or TFPI2-BR (191-KKKKK-195). Further, similar electrostatic interactions occur in each case. These models, in the absence of experimentally determined structures, provide a guiding point for proper mutagenesis studies in FV, TFPI and TFPI2.
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